Bacteria

Bacteria

What are bacteria? Bacteria consists of a large domain of prokaryotic microorganisms. They are generally a few micrometres in length but they come in lots of different shapes. It is hypothesized that bacteria were among the first life forms to appear on our planet. Bacteria inhabit just about any habit on earth. These range from soil, water, radioactive waste and event the deepest portions of the Earth’s crust. They are also capable of living in a symbiotic or parasitic relationship with plants and animals. The…

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Flesh-eating bacteria

Flesh-eating bacteria

Necrotizing fasciitis is commonly known as flesh-eating bacteria. It is a rare infection of the deeper layers of the skin and subcutaneous tissues. The flesh-eating bacteria can easily spread across the fascial plane within the subcutaneos tissue. The most consistent feature feature of this flesh-eating bacteria was first described in 1952 as necrosis of the subcutaneous tissue and fascia with relating sparing of the underlying muscle. Necrotizing fasciitis progresses very rapidly and it has a greater risk of developing in the immunocompromised due to medical…

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Ebolavirus

Ebolavirus

The genus Ebolavirus is a virological taxon included in the family Filoviridae, order Mononegavirales. The members of this species genus, are called ebolaviruses. There are currently five known virus species and they are named after the region where they were originally identified. These five are the following: Bundibugyo ebolavirus. Reston ebolavirus. Sudan ebolavirus. Tai Forest ebolavirus. Zaire ebolavirus. Each species of the genus Ebolavirus, has one member virus. Four of these virus species cause bola Virus Disease in humans. It is a type of hemorrhagic…

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Gram-negative bacteria

Gram-negative bacteria

What are gram-negative bacteria? Gram-negative bacteria are a class of bacteria that doesn’t retain the crystal violet stain used in the Gram staining method of bacterial identification. The thin peptodoglycan layer of their cell wall is sandwiched between an innder cell membrane and a bacterial outer membrane. During Gram staining, the outer lipid-based membrane is removed by an alcohol solution. The alcohol also decolorizes the exposed peptidoglycan layer by dissolving away the crystal violet. A counterstain is then added which will color the bacteria red…

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Origin of viruses

Origin of viruses

Viruses can be found literally where there is life and they probably existed when the first living cells have evolved. The origin of viruses is a pretty hard topic to follow because viruses do not leave fossils behind when they die. Virologists use molecular techniques to compare the DNA or RNA of viruses.It is a useful means of investigating how they came to be. There are currently three hypotheses that try to explain the origin of viruses. Regressive hypothesis. Viruses may have been small cells…

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Gram-positive bacteria

Gram-positive bacteria

Gram-positive bacteria are a class of bacteria that make a crystal violent stain when you use the Gram staining method of bacteria differentiation. The thick peptidoglycan layer in the cell wall that encases their cell membrane retains the stain. This makes definitive identification possible. Characteristics of gram positive bacteria Generally, the following characteristics are present in gram-positive bacteria: Cytoplasmic lipid membrane. Teichoic acids and lipoids are present. Peptidoglycan chains are cross-linked to form rigid cell walls by a bacterial enzyme DD-transpeptidase. Some species of bacteria…

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West Nile Virus

West Nile Virus

What is the West Nile Virus? The West Nile virus is a mosquito-borne zoonotic arbovirus. It belongs tp the genus Flavivirus in the family Flaviviridae. This flavivirus is found in the temperate and tropical regions of the world. This particular virus was first identified in the West Nile subregion in Uganda during 1937. Since 1937 and the mid-1990s, the West Nile virus occurred sporadically. During that time it was considered to be a minor risk for humand but an outbreak un Algeria during 1994 changed…

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Virus replication

Virus replication

Virus Replication process: The virus replication process is very interesting and complex at the same time. Viruses are dependent on their host cells for replication. There are six stages of the virus replication process in its life cycle. Attachment. This is the intermolecular binding between viral capsid proteins and receptors on the outer membrane of the host cell. The details of the binding process will determine the host species and cell types that are receptive to viral infection. This mechanism is believed to have evolved…

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Bacteria Metabolism

Bacteria Metabolism

Bacteria shows an extremely wide variety of bacteria metabolism types. The distribution of metabolic traits within the different groups of bacteria have generally been used to define their taxonomy. These traits often do not correspond with modern genetic classifications. These are the types of bacteria metabolism: Nutritional type Source of energy Source of carbon Phototrophs Sunlight Organic compounds or cabon fixation. Lithotrops Inorganic compounds Organic compounds. Organotrophs Organic compounds Organic compounds or carbon fixation The carbon metabolism in bacteria is ether heterotrphic or autotrophic. Heterottrophic…

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Fungal Diversity

Fungi Diversity

Fungi Diversity Fungi are present worldwide and they can grow in a wide range of habitats. Some of them grow in extreme environments such as deserts, areas with high salt concentrations or ionizing radiation. Some even grow in deep sea sediments. Some fungi have shown the ability to survive intense UV and cosmic radiation encountered in space. Most fungi grow in terrestrial environment even though several species live partly or solely in aquatic habitats. One example of of an aquatic fungi is the chytrid fungus…

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