clostridium tetani

Clostridium tetani

What is Clostridium tetani? Clostridium tetani is a box-car shaped, anaerobic bacterium of the genus Clostridium. It is Gram-positive and its appearance on a gram stain resembles tennis rackets or drumsticks. Clostridium tetani is found as spores in soil or in the gastrointestinal tract of animals. It produces a powerful biological toxin known as tetanospasmin, and it is the causative agent of tetanus. The disease is characterized by painful muscular spasms that can lead to respiratory failure and death, which is recorded as up to…

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Hantavirus

Hantavirus

Hantaviruses are single-stranded, negative sense RNA viruses in the Bunyaviridae family. These viruses normally infect rodents and they do not cause disease in their hosts. Humans may become infected when they come into contact with rodent urine, saliva or feces. Some strains can cause potentially fatal diseases in humans, like hantavirus hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, while others have not been associated with known human diseases. Human infections have almost entirely been linked to human contact with rodent excrement, but recent…

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Enterovirus 71

Enterovirus 71

Enterovirus 71 is a virus of the genus Enterovirus in the Picornaviridae family. It is notable for its etiological role in epidemics of severe neurological diseases in children. It was first isolated and characterized from cases of neurological disease in California during 1969. Enterovirus 71 infrequently causes polio-like syndrome permanent paralysis. Evolution of the virus. The virus is a member of the enterovirus species A. It appears to have evolved in recent years, with the first known strain isolated in 1965. The virus was associated…

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hepatitis B

Hepatitis B

Hepatitis B is an infectious disease that’s cause by the hepatitis B virus. This particular virus affects the liver. It can cause both acute and chronic infections. Many individuals have no visible symptoms during the initial infections. Some however develop a rapid onset of sickness combined with vomiting, yellow skin, fatigue, dark urine and abdominal pain. These symptoms last a few weeks and the infection rarely results in death. It may take between 30 and 180 days for symptoms to appear. In those who get…

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Influenza virus

Influenza virus (Flu)

What is the influenza virus? Influenza is most commonly known as the flu. It is an infectious disease caused by the influenza virus. Symptoms vary from mild to severe. The complications of influenza may include viral pneumonia, secondary bacteria pneumonia, sinus infections and the worsening of previous health problems like asthma or heart disease. There are three types of influenza that affect people. The virus is usually spread through the air when someone coughs or sneezes and it is believed to mostly occur over short…

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Can you live without bacteria?

Can you live without bacteria?

The idea that you have millions of bacteria on your skin and inside of you, can give anyone the creeps. The fact is that humans cannot live without carbon, nitrogen, defenses against disease and the ability to digest food. This means that we can’t live without bacteria. Most people think of bacteria in the context of disease so they don’t think about the good bacteria, only the bad ones. Recycling On land and sea, bacteria are major contributors in the decomposition of organic matter and…

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Ecological importance of Protozoa

Ecological importance of Protozoa

The major important role in the ecology of protozoa is its role in food chain. Many aquatic animals feed on protozoa which of course helps them to survive. Protozoa helps to control the population of bacteria as well as other protozoans by feeding on them. Controlling the population of other organism is important so that the ecological balance and diversity remains in check. Like bacteria, aquatic and terrestrial protozoa speed up the decomposition of any dead plants and animals. Decomposition is a very important process…

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How does your body fight off a virus?

How does your body fight off a virus?

Viruses and micro-organisms that are infectious but they do require a living host in order to survive and replicate. When a virus enters your body, it invades and assumes control of cells and redirects them to produce more of the virus. How do our bodies defend us from viruses? When our bodies are under attack from a viral infection, they form a defense known as the immune respone. Our immune system is designed to recognise the cells that make up our bodies and to attack…

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Characteristics of Protozoa

Characteristics of Protozoa

Characteristics of protozoa Protozoa are usually between 10 and 52 micrometers in length but they can grow as large as 1 mm. The largest protozoa are known as deep-sea dwelling xenophyphores and they can grow as large as 20 cm in diameter. They were considered to be part of the protista. Protozoa exist throughout aquatic environments and soil. Protozoa occupy a range of throphic levels. They are eukaryotic unicellular and aquatic organisms that can be flagellates, ciliates and amoebas. Motility and digestion Tulodens are two…

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Fungi growth and physiology

Fungi growth and physiology

The growth of fungi as hyphae on or in solid substrates or as a single cell in aquatic habitats is ddapted for the extraction of nutrients in an efficient manner. This is because growth forms have a high surface to volume ratio. Hyphae are specifically adapted for growth on solid surfaces and they are also adapted to invade a structure called an appressorium that evolved to puncture plant tissues. The pressure that’s generated by the appressorium. can exceed 1 200 psi. All of this pressure…

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