hiv

Early treatment of HIV makes breakthrough

A major international trial has found that early antiretroviral (ARV) treatment of HIV-infected people are at considerably lower risk of developing Aids and other serious medical conditions linked to the disease. The randomised trial, which tested HIV-positive patients with a CD4 count of 500, found that the earlier initiation of treatment had substantial health benefits over those who start treatment when their CD4 count had dropped to 350. As of January, South Africa started treatment once patients’ CD4 count dropped below 500, instead of 350,…

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entamoeba hystolytica

Entamoeba histolytica

Entamoeba histolytica is an anaerobic parasitic protozoan that is part of the genus Entamoeba. It predominantly infects humans and other primates and it is estimated that 50 millio people have been infected worldwide. Previously, it was believe that 10% of the world population was infected but these figures predate the recognition that at least 90% of these infections were due to another species called Entamoeba dispar. Transmission vector the active stage exists only the host and in fresh loose feces. Cysts survive outside the host…

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h. salinarum

Halobacterium salinarum

Halobacterium salinarum is an extremely halophilic marni Gram-negative obligate aerobic archaeon. The name is misleading because this microorganism is not a bacterium, but a member of the Archaea domain. It can be found in salted fish, hides, hypersaline lakes, and salterns. As salterns reach the minimum salinity levels for extreme halophiles, their water becomes purple in reddish in color due to the high densities of halophilic Archaea. This particular microorganism has also been found in food with high salt content such as sausages or marine…

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parvovirus

Parvovirus B19

Parvovirus B19 has a few names such as B19 virus or erythovirus B19 but the full name is primate erythroparvovirus 1. Until 2005, it was the only known human virus in the family Paroviridae, genus Erythroparvovris. Its diameter is between 23 and 26 nm. The name stems from Latin, where parvum means small, it reflects the fact that B19 is among the smallest DNA viruses. It is mostly known for causing disease in the pedriatric population but it can also affect adults. This virus is…

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Clostridium Perfringens

Clostridium Perfringens

Clostridium perfringes is a rod-shaped, Gram-positive bacteria which is a member of the genus Clostridium It is present in a lot of environments and it can be found in not only a lot of environmental sources but in the intestinal tract of humans, other invertebrates and insects. It can commonly be found on raw meat and poultry. The ideal conditions for it to grow is areas with little or no oxygen, and it can multiply very rapidly under ideal conditions. Some strains of the bacterium…

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clostridium tetani

Clostridium tetani

What is Clostridium tetani? Clostridium tetani is a box-car shaped, anaerobic bacterium of the genus Clostridium. It is Gram-positive and its appearance on a gram stain resembles tennis rackets or drumsticks. Clostridium tetani is found as spores in soil or in the gastrointestinal tract of animals. It produces a powerful biological toxin known as tetanospasmin, and it is the causative agent of tetanus. The disease is characterized by painful muscular spasms that can lead to respiratory failure and death, which is recorded as up to…

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Hantavirus

Hantavirus

Hantaviruses are single-stranded, negative sense RNA viruses in the Bunyaviridae family. These viruses normally infect rodents and they do not cause disease in their hosts. Humans may become infected when they come into contact with rodent urine, saliva or feces. Some strains can cause potentially fatal diseases in humans, like hantavirus hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, while others have not been associated with known human diseases. Human infections have almost entirely been linked to human contact with rodent excrement, but recent…

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Enterovirus 71

Enterovirus 71

Enterovirus 71 is a virus of the genus Enterovirus in the Picornaviridae family. It is notable for its etiological role in epidemics of severe neurological diseases in children. It was first isolated and characterized from cases of neurological disease in California during 1969. Enterovirus 71 infrequently causes polio-like syndrome permanent paralysis. Evolution of the virus. The virus is a member of the enterovirus species A. It appears to have evolved in recent years, with the first known strain isolated in 1965. The virus was associated…

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hepatitis B

Hepatitis B

Hepatitis B is an infectious disease that’s cause by the hepatitis B virus. This particular virus affects the liver. It can cause both acute and chronic infections. Many individuals have no visible symptoms during the initial infections. Some however develop a rapid onset of sickness combined with vomiting, yellow skin, fatigue, dark urine and abdominal pain. These symptoms last a few weeks and the infection rarely results in death. It may take between 30 and 180 days for symptoms to appear. In those who get…

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Influenza virus

Influenza virus (Flu)

What is the influenza virus? Influenza is most commonly known as the flu. It is an infectious disease caused by the influenza virus. Symptoms vary from mild to severe. The complications of influenza may include viral pneumonia, secondary bacteria pneumonia, sinus infections and the worsening of previous health problems like asthma or heart disease. There are three types of influenza that affect people. The virus is usually spread through the air when someone coughs or sneezes and it is believed to mostly occur over short…

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